Among Canadian trade options, therefore, Quebec would potentially benefit most from a gradual move toward a North-American free trade area, with ad hoc measures for certain industries, but should reject the world-wide free trade and unilateral free trade options because of the serious industrial dislocations and factors of production outflows they would create. Read issue volume 52, number 4, octobre–décembre of the journal L'Actualité économique on Érudit. Discipline: Economics.
Each participant maintains its own duties against other countries or even colonies. The Reciprocity Treaty permitted free access in the coastal fisheries to Americans and abolished duties on a wide range of natural products grain, flour, fish, livestock, coal, timber and other less important natural produce.
At the same time, American vessels were admitted to the use of Canadian canals on the same terms as British and colonial vessels. Reciprocity was to apply to Canadian vessels going to United States. In the late 's the B. Provinces were faced by that policy which the literature has called "Little Englandism". When Britain repealed the corn laws and gradually the preferential tariffs on timber the B.
Provinces were shocked to be left on their own. A new commercial system had to be developed: But, it could have been something else: The direction of the external trade changes with the Reciprocity Treaty. But a decade later, the United States was both Canada's major supplier and its best customer.
Neither the Treaty nor the loss of preference in the British Market succeeded in destroying the Trade of B. Provinces with the United Kingdom. In fact, trade with Britain was greater in than in Later, in , Britain took back its leading position. What we see is a diversion of trade from Britain to the United States and back to Britain where the basic commercial connections were well established.
The Treaty was disappointing for the "dream" of using the St. Lawrence as the main route to capture the trade of the West did not materialize. The consequence of abrogation was less unfortunate than had in some quarters been anticipated. The Treaty came late after the abolition of the preferential tariffs, and it was disturbed by major events the crisis of ; the American Civil War. After the treaty, recovery of the American currency reconstruction, proximity of the two countries, a new boom in foreign investment in Canada, etc.
The agreement lasted for twelve years and was finally overwhelmed by the rising tide of protectionism and commercial jealousies and political hostilities of the time. Reciprocity, Confederation, the Nation Policy, the St. It is argued in this paper that both normative and objective considerations must be taken into consideration in the formulation of tariff policy. Moreover, it is shown that static and partial equilibrium analyses can be disastrously misleading in guiding the framing of tariff policy.
Regarding the regional impact of tariffs, it is shown that within a monetary union, interregional trade flows reflect absolute production and transport cost advantages and that the non-realization of perfect domestic mobility of factors of production entails social and private adjustment costs that must be reckoned with in the cost-benefit analysis of any shift in trade policy. The preparatory year may just be taken in French. After a series of core courses microeconomics, macroeconomics, sociology, statistics, math, accounting, etc.
Student exchanges are very popular: Certificates are professional development programs lasting at least one year. They are diplomas in a specialized field of management, worth 30 North American university credits. HEC Montréal offers more than 25 certificates. The MSc degree usually lasts between 18 and 24 months, and it can be taken with a research thesis or with a supervised project and additional courses.
Most students need to complete a few additional "preparation courses" from the final year of the BBA in order to prepare for their option. For the specializations offered in English, students enrol in the thesis stream, consisting of 7 courses and a major research paper. Affaires internationales, Analytique d'affaires, Comptabilité professionnelle, Contrôle de gestion, Développement organisationnel, Économie appliquée, Économie financière appliquée, Finance, Gestion des opérations, Gestion des ressources humaines, Gestions en contexte d'innovations sociales, Ingénierie financière, Intelligence d'affaires, Logistique internationale, Management, Marketing, Stratégie, Technologies de l'information.
Global Supply Chain Management and a M. Students begin at SMU, studying international cultural policy, law and the economics of arts markets.
They then continue at HEC Montréal, learning about project management, arts branding, marketing for cultural industries and other aspects of the arts business. Finally, they study strategy for the arts business and complete a masters thesis at SDA Bocconi. The program lasts one year. The school also offers specialized, one-year graduate diplomas called D. S diplômes d'études supérieures spécialisées in French, for people who already hold a bachelor's degree and a small amount of work experience.
Compared to the Master of Science degrees, the D. S tend to be more applied and focused on professional skills, whereas the MSc combines these with an extensive study of theory.
In , the degree was also offered in Brazzaville Congo with support from the Congolese government. Students can take additional credits after finishing the D. The HEC Montréal Short Graduate Programs in French only answer the needs of the business community by focusing on practical training and developing skills specific to a profession or field. These programs consist of 15 credits and are recognized with an attestation of studies. It is a graduate-level university course lasting 16 to 24 months, and equips students to write the Common Final Examination to become CPAs.
Options on an underlying interest whose market price fluctuates widely over the short term command higher premiums to compensate for the volatility. Options on less volatile underlying interests will command lower premiums because of lower volatility. Accounts EasyWeb - Accounts. Payments EasyWeb - Payments. Transfers EasyWeb - Transfers. Investments EasyWeb - Investments.
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