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Facebook's Marketplace adds AI help for buyers and sellers. Toys 'R' Us could make a comeback? In name at least. X-ray crystallographic structures of human endoglin PDB: The ZP module , whose ZP-N and ZP-C moieties are closely packed against each other, mediates the homodimerization of endoglin by forming an intermolecular disulfide bond that involves cysteine Together with the aforementioned intermolecular disulfide involving cysteine , this generates a molecular clamp that secures the ligand via interaction of two copies of OR1 with the knuckle regions of homodimeric BMP Endoglin has been shown to interact with high affinity to TGF beta receptor 3   and TGF beta receptor 1 ,   and with lower affinity to TGF beta receptor 2.
Endoglin itself doesn't bind the TGF beta ligands, but is present with the TGF beta receptors when the ligand is bound, indicating an important role for endoglin. TGF beta receptor I binds to the aa region and to the aa region between and the N-terminus.
Furthermore, TGF beta receptor I will dissociate from endoglin soon after it phosphorylates its cytoplasmic tail, leaving TGF beta receptor I inactive. The high interaction between endoglin's cytoplasmic and extracellular tail with the TGF beta receptor complexes indicates an important role for endoglin in the modulation of the TGF beta responses, such as cellular localization and cellular migration.
Endoglin has been found to be an auxiliary receptor for the TGF-beta receptor complex. Beside TGF-beta signaling endoglin may have other functions. It has been postulated that endoglin is involved in the cytoskeletal organization affecting cell morphology and migration. Its expression is regulated during heart development. Experimental mice without the endoglin gene die due to cardiovascular abnormalities. In humans endoglin may be involved in the autosomal dominant disorder known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia HHT type 1.
Some mutations that lead to this disorder are: Endoglin levels have been found to be elevated in pregnant women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.
The important role that endoglin plays in angiogenesis  and the modulation of TGF beta receptor signaling, which mediates cellular localization, cellular migration, cellular morphology, cell proliferation, cluster formation, etc.
The role of endoglin in cancer can be contradicting at times since it is needed for neoangiogenesis in tumors, which is needed for tumor growth and survival, yet the reduction in expression of endoglin has in many cancers correlated with a negative outcome of that cancer. TGF beta can act as a tumor suppressor in the premalignant stage of the benign neoplasm by inhibiting its growth and inducing apoptosis.
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